Thank you for having visited with me over the past 15 months. It has certainly been the unique experience on my part, especially seeing the different countries that have come to view my blog. Unfortunately, I am running up against some time constraints – a publisher has asked me to translate a book and I am way behind schedule on the timetable I had set up for myself. That being the case, I'm afraid I'm giving up my blog as of today. Thank you for visiting with me, and I pray that God will bless you and yours in the months ahead.
In Christ's name,
Sunday, August 5, 2012
Boniface VIII, 1294-1303
- 1300, Boniface decreed a “Great Jubilee”, a big celebration in Rome where special indulgences were offered, and so much money came in that it had to be “raked” into baskets
- 1302, the bull Unam Sanctam in which Boniface decreed that he had the right to make and unmake kings and emperors, “We, moreover, proclaim, declare and pronounce that it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human being to be subject to the Roman Pontiff.”
- 1303, Philip IV of France sent people to arrest him; the French agents had to run for it, but Boniface “died of humiliation”
Saturday, August 4, 2012
“But in things above (that is, with God), God has never allowed nor does He now allow such activity. Rather, here, whatever is to be done ought to be done only with the certain and express command of God, because a human being, of himself, does not know the things that are above him, that is, what God wills, unless He has revealed Himself by His Word,....” Martin Luther, Preface to Breismann, Response to Schatzgeyer, LW, AE, 59:30-31
Friday, August 3, 2012
Fili, ego debeo esse finis tuus supremus. Ex hac intentione purificabitur affectus tuus, sæpius ad se ipsum, et ad creaturas male incurvatus. Nam si te ipsum in aliquo quæris, statim in te deficies et arescis. Omnia ergo ad me principaliter referas qui omnia sum, qui omnia dedi. Sic singula considera sicut ex summo bono manantia. Et ideo ad me tanquam ad originem suam cuncta sunt referenda.
My son, I must be your Supreme and final end, if you desires to be truly happy. Out of such purpose your affection shall be purified, which too often is sinfully bent upon itself and upon created things. For if you seek yourself in any matter, straightway you will fail within yourself and grow barren. Therefore refer everything to Me first of all, for it is I who gave you all. So look upon each blessing as flowing from the Supreme Good, and thus all things are to be attributed to Me as their source.
Imitation of Christ, III, 9:1
Charles V, “the Wise”, 1364-1380
- spent his time during a period of peace to strengthen the country - the basic structure that he set up lasted until the French Revolution in 1789 - got the French parliament (“estates”) to agree that as long as the old taxes weren’t changed, they didn’t need to be renewed by the estates, with the result that the French parliament never developed much power over the king
Thursday, August 2, 2012
“Now is it not confessedly the greatest impiety, nay, the greatest insults, to place the honor of the Deity at the will and pleasure of human judgment, so that there cannot be a God except the senate permit him?” Tertullian, To the Nations, 10, ANF 3:119
Si humana natura Christi non potuit particeps fieri omnipotentiae caeterarumque proprietatum Verbi propter illarum infinitatem, certe propter eandem causam neque ipsius lÒgou potuit esse capax.
If the human nature of Christ was not able to be a partner of the omnipotence and the other properties of the Word on account of their infinity, certainly on account of that cause the same is not able to be capable of the Logos.
John II, “the Good Fellow”, 1350-1364
- “good knight and a mediocre king”
- 1355, England renews the war, defeats France at the battle of Poitiers, captures John and his son - they are taken hostage to England until a ransom is paid - the huge rise in taxes and absence of the king lead to civil chaos and peasant uprisings in France
- in 1360, John is released on the partial payment of his ransom, but one of the other hostages escaped and John returned to captivity, dying there
Wednesday, August 1, 2012
“In things below, God permits even those activities that He Himself does not ordain in Holy Scripture, such as building, pasturing a flock, buying, and, as Peter says [1 Peter 2:13 Vg], to make 'human creatures,' that is, ordinances. In these things it is not necessary that you wait for a word of God,....” Margin Luther, Preface to Briesmann, Response to Schatzgeyer, LW, AE, 59:30
Philip VI, 1328-1350
- France had become one of the great powers of Europe
- 1338-1453, the Hundred Years War (which lasted so long because England was trying to conquer a country that had 5 times the population and 10 times the wealth of her own)
Tuesday, July 31, 2012
Benedictus sis Deus meus, quia licet ego omnibus bonis indignus sim, tua tamen nobilitas et infinita bonitas nunquam cessat benefacere etiam ingratis, et longe a te aversis. Converte nos ad te, ut simus grati, humiles, devoti, quia salus nostra es tu, virtus et fortitudo nostra.
Blessed are You, O my God, because though I be unworthy of all Your benefits, Your bountiful and infinite goodness never ceases to do good even to ingrates and to those who are turned far from You. Turn us to yourself, that we may be grateful, humble, and godly, for You art our salvation, our courage, and our strength.
Imitation of Christ, III, 8:3
Monday, July 30, 2012
“If the Tiber has overflows its banks, if the Nile has remained in its bed, if the sky has been still, or the earth has been in commotion, if death has made its devastations, or famine its afflictions, your cry immediately is, 'This is the fault of the Christians!'” Tertullian, To the Nations, 9, ANF 3:117
Quae Scriptura Christum in tempore accepisse affirmat, ea non dicit secundum divinitatem accepisse (secundum quam omnia ab aeterno possidet), sed quod persona Christi, ratione et respectu humanae naturae, ea in tempore acceperit.
That which Scripture asserts [of] Christ in time to be accepted, it is not said to be accepted according to the divinity (according to which he possess all things from eternity), but the person of Christ, by reason of and in respect to the human nature, accepts it in time.
Sunday, July 29, 2012
“For indeed, the Christian church on earth has no greater power or work against everything that may oppose it then such common prayer. The evil spirit knows this well and therefore he does all that he can to prevent such prayer.” Martin Luther, Treatise on Good Works, LW, AE, 44:66
Saturday, July 28, 2012
Facit hoc amor tuus gratis præveniens me, et in tam multis subveniens necessitatibus, a gravibus quoque custodiens me periculis, et ab innumeris, ut ver dicam, eripiens malis. Me siquidem male amando perdidi; et te solum quærendo et pure amando me et te pariter inveni, atque ex amore profundius ad nihilum me redegi. Quia tu, o Dulcissime, facis mecum supra meritum omne et supra id quod audeo sperare vel rogare.
This is the doing of Your love which freely goes before me and helps me in so many necessities, which guards me also in great dangers and snatches me, as I may truly say, from innumerable evils. For truly, by loving myself amiss, I lost myself, and by seeking and sincerely loving You alone, I found both myself and You, and through love I have brought myself to yet deeper nothingness: because You, O most sweet Lord, deal with me beyond all merit, and above all which I dare ask or think.
Imitation of Christ, III, 8:2
Philip IV, “the Fair”, 1285-1314
- when, in 1302, the Pope decreed that everyone had to be subject to him, Philip had some people beat up (he claimed they were trying to arrest him) the pope, who died soon after
- 1305 marked the beginning of the papacy in Avignon - 1307, Philip accused the Knights Templar of heresy, executed many of them and took all of their property (the Shroud of Turin appears?)
Friday, July 27, 2012
“You are accustomed in conversation yourselves to say, in disparagement of us, 'Why is so-and-so deceitful, when the Christians are so self-denying? why merciless, when they are so merciful?' You thus bear your testimony to the fact that this is not the character of Christians, when you ask, in the way of a retort, how men who are reputed to be Christians can be of such and such a disposition.” Tertullian, To the Nations, 5, ANF 3:113
Thursday, July 26, 2012
“Let them undertake just prayer alone and rightly exercise themselves in faith, and they will find that it is true, as the holy fathers have said, that there is no work like prayer. Mumbling with the mouth is easy, or at least considered easy. But to follow the words in deep devotion and sincerity of heart, that is, with desire and in faith, so that one earnestly desires what the words say and does not doubt that that they will be heard, that is a great deed in God's sight.” Martin Luther, Treatise on Good Works, LW, AE, 44:61-2
Charles IV, 1347-1378
- during his reign the Black Death struck Germany, along with such groups as the Flagellants, and anti-Jewish massacres
- in 1356, the Golden Bull was proclaimed, that there were 7 electors of the German king, and named them, making them virtual kings in their own territory
- towns in Germany were growing stronger, served as places for refuge and protection
Wednesday, July 25, 2012
Consilium bonum est ut fervoris spiritu concepto mediteris quid futurum sit abscedente lumine. Quod dum contigerit, recognita, ac denuo lucem posses reverti, quam ad cautelam tibi, mihi autem ad gloriam, ad tempus subtraxi. Utilior enim est sæpe talis probatio, quam si semper prospera pro tua haberes voluntate. Nam merita non sunt ex hoc extimanda, si quis plures visiones aut consolationes habeat, vel si peritus sit in Scripturis, aut in altiori gradu ponatur: sed si fuerit vera humilitate fundatus, et divina charitate repletus; si Dei honorem pure et integre semper quærat, si se ipsum nihil reputet, et in veritate despiciat atque ab aliis etiam despici et humiliari magis gaudeat quam honorari.
It is good counsel that when fervor of spirit is kindled, you should meditate how it will be with you when the light is taken away. Which when it does happen, remember that still the light may return again, which I have taken away for a time for a warning to you, and also for mine own glory. Such a trial is often more useful than if you had always things prosperous according to your own will. For merits are not to be reckoned by this, that a man has many visions or consolations, or that he is skilled in the Scriptures, or that he is placed in a high situation; but that he is grounded upon true humility and filled with divine charity, that he always purely and uprightly seeks the honor of God, that he sets not by himself, but unfeignedly despises himself, and even rejoices to be despised and humbled by others more than to be honored.
Imitation of Christ, III, 7:5
Louis IV, 1314-1347
- 11 years of civil war at the beginning of his reign - backed by the people, he was very opposed to the pope in Avignon
- 1338, a decision was reached by the German electors that their vote was all that was needed to make the German king, that they didn’t need the pope’s approval
Tuesday, July 24, 2012
“Day after day, indeed, you groan over the increasing number of the Christians. Your constant cry is, that the state is beset (by us); that Christians are in your fields, in your camps, in your islands. You grieve over it as a calamity, that each sex, every age – in short, every rank – is passing over from you to us; yet you do not even after this set your minds upon reflecting whether there be not here some latent good.” Tertullian, To the Nations, 1, ANF 3:109
Christus secundum carnem est Filius Dei naturalis non adoptivus, quia non existit extra Deum. sicut adoptans alias existit extra adoptatum.
Christ according to the flesh is the natural son of God not an adopted son, because he did not exist outside of God, just as one adopting another exists outside of the adopted one.
Richard II, 1377-1399
- grandson of Edward III, aged 10 when he becomes king - because of the high taxes caused by the war, there were outbreaks of violence
- 1381, the Peasant’s Revolt, led by Wat Tyler, who demanded reforms - Richard promised to make the reforms, dispersed the crowds, then went back on his promises and had Tyler executed
- by 1399, taxes were even higher, and when Richard tried to accuse his political opponents of treason, he was captured and thrown into prison where he died
Monday, July 23, 2012
“Now just take a look! If no other work were commanded, would not prayer alone suffice to exercise a man's whole life and faith? The spiritual estate has been especially established for this work, as indeed in ancient times some fathers prayed day and night.” Martin Luther, Treatise on Good Works, LW, AE, 44:61
Edward III, 1327-1377
- came to the throne at age 15, his mother and her lover ran things for the first three years - 1338, the outbreak of the 100 years war with France (France wanted the English off the continent and the English wanted to stay) - 1346, the English won the battle of Crecy
(outnumbered by the French, what saved the English were “lower-class” bowmen - leads to a gradually increasing political influence of the ‘lower’ classes)
- 1356, the English won the battle of Poitiers (another small English army with bowman beat a huge French army, and captured the king of France) - because of the war, the power of parliament grew - during his reign the House of Commons and the House of Lords are
seen in history for the first time
- 1348-1349 - the Black Death (bubonic plague) strikes Europe - a third to a half of the population (depending on the area) dies
Sunday, July 22, 2012
Qui tempore pacis nimis securus esse voluerit, sæpe tempore belli nimis dejectus et formidolosus reperietur. Si scires semper humilis et modicus in te permanere necnon spiritum tuum bene moderare et regere, non incideres tam cito in periculum et offensam.
He who in time of peace wills to be oversecure shall be often found in time of war overdispirited and full of fears. If you knew always how to continue humble and moderate in yourself, and to guide and rule your own spirit well, you wouldest not so quickly fall into danger and mischief.
Edward II, 1307-1327
- not considered a good king because he was “bored” with his “job” - in 1314 Edward was defeated by the Scots at Bannockburn (the beginning of Scottish independence)
- a parliament forced his deposition and he was murdered in prison 8 months later
Saturday, July 21, 2012
Soap had been invented and was being produced on a large scale by the end of the 12th century.
The geared wheel, water mill and wind mill are invented/perfected.
Forests become depleted, coal mining is begun.
Bridges begin to be constructed of stone.
The spinning wheel is developed as is also the compass.
Spectacles, the alarm clock and writing paper are developed and begin becoming popular.
Gunpowder is introduced in Europe and is first used at the battle of Crecy, 1346.
Towns begin building Gothic cathedrals.
Mystery and morality plays are common, which eventually lead to modern day theater and movies.
Ministrals and troubadors are popular, which eventually become modern ‘pop’ singers.
Hospitals are instituted in Europe, the first at Rome. Bethlehem Hospital in London eventually becomes an asylum for the mentally ill, giving to the English language the corruption of its name - “bedlam.”
Guilds are common, providing for the welfare of workers in different fields - they become the labor unions of today.
School in the 13th century - the cheapest book available cost $200, the yearly salary of a teacher. The entire Bible cost $10,000 and took one year for a skilled copyist to complete. Cluny, which had the best monastery library in Europe had a grand total of 570 books. The school term lasted for 11 months, with only a few days off at Easter and Christmas.
Friday, July 20, 2012
Starting in the 13th century certain stories became very famous and widely accepted in various countries - often and these stories or ‘epics’ were seen as having to do with the beginning of these various nations
Anglo-Saxon - Beowulf
Germany - Nibelungenlied (behind it is the story of the massacre of some Burgundian Germans by the Huns, Rome’s allies, in the 5th century)
Spain - Poema del Cid
France - The Song of Roland (a story about the heroism of one of Charlemagne’s captains)
England - King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table (reflecting various stories about Artorius Ambrosius, a Roman-British general in the late 5th century)
Thursday, July 19, 2012
Quod si sentire suum magis sequi, quam aliis exercitatis credere volunt, erit eis periculosus exitus, sed tamen retrahi a proprio conceptu non valuerint. Raro sibi ipsis sapientes, ab aliis regi humiliter patiuntur. Melius est modicum sapere cum humilitate, et parva intelligentia quam magi scientiarum thesauri cum vana complacentia. Melius est minus habere, quam multum, unde osses superbire. Non satis discrete agit, qui se totum lætitiæ tradidit, obliviscens pristinæ inopiæ suæ, et casti timoris Domini, qui non timet gratiam oblatam amittere. Non etiam satis virtuose sapit, qui tempore adversitatis et cujuscumque gravitatis nimis desperate se gerit, et minus fidenter de me, quam oportet, cogitat ac sentit.
But if they wish to follow their own fancies rather than trust the experience of others, the result will be very dangerous to them if they still refuse to be drawn away from their own notion. Those who are wise in their own conceits, seldom patiently endure to be ruled by others. It is better to have a small portion of wisdom with humility, and a slender understanding, than great treasures of sciences with vain self-esteem. It is better for you to have less than much of what may make you proud. He is not very discrete who gives up himself entirely to joy, forgetting his former helplessness and the chaste fear of the Lord, which fears to lose the grace offered. Nor is he very wise, after a manly sort, who in time of adversity, or any trouble whatsoever, bears himself too despairingly, and feels concerning Me less trustfully than he ought.
Imitation of Christ, III, 7:3
Roger Bacon, 1214-1292
- considered one of the great English scholars of the day - his writings survived, so much of later science built on him - he advocated the study of the ancient languages so that one could read
the ancient writings as they had been written - he also insisted that to be sure something was factual, one needed to use experiments to discover information - curiously enough in one of his works, Roger mentions Peter de Maricourt who was already demonstrating as fact what Roger and others were thinking of a possible (the only mention in history of Peter de Maricourt)
Wednesday, July 18, 2012
“...; since, though our numbers are so great – constituting all but the majority in every city – we conduct ourselves so quietly immodestly; I might perhaps say, known rather as individuals than as organized communities, and remarkable only for the reformation of our former vices.” Tertullian, To Scapula, 2, ANF 3:106
Robert Grosseteste, 1175-1253
- bishop of Lincoln and chancellor of the University of Oxford - although he was mainly a translator of works he was also the teacher of Roger Bacon and the “inventor” of the “scientific method” which Bacon made famous - “The first wave theory of light has been credited to him, and he has been called ‘the original architect of the Gregorian calendar of 1582.’ His experiments with lenses contributed to the development of the first spectacles.”
Tuesday, July 17, 2012
“First, they should teach that God has commanded us to pray. Just as it is a great sin to commit murder so also it is sinful not to pray or to ask God for something.” Martin Luther, Instructions for the Visitors of Parish Pastors in Electoral Saxony, LW, AE,40: 278
Monday, July 16, 2012
Multi enim sunt qui, cum non bene eis successerit, statim impatientes fiunt aut desides. Non enim semper est in potestate hominis via ejus, sed Dei est dare et consolari, quando vult et quantum vult, et cui vult, sicut sibi placuerit, et non amplius. Quidam incauti propter devotionis gratiam se ipsos destruxerunt, quia plus agere voluerunt quam potuerunt, non pensantes suæ parvitatis mensuram sed magis cordis affectum sequentes, quam rationis judicium. Et quia majora præsumserunt, quam Deo placitum fuit, idcirco gratiam perdiderunt cito, et facti sunt inopes, et viles relicti, qui in cælum posuerant nidum sibi: ut humiliati et depauperati discant non in alis suis volare, sed sub pennis meis sperare. Qui adhuc novi sunt et imperiti in via Domini, nisi consilio discretorum se regant, faciliter decipi possunt et illudi.
For there are many who, when things have not gone prosperous with them, become forthwith impatient or slothful. For the way of a man is not in himself, but it is God's to give and to console, when He will, and as much as He will, and whom He will, as it shall please Him, and no further. Some who were presumptuous because of the grace of devotion within them, have destroyed themselves, because they would do more than they were able, not considering the measure of their own littleness, but rather following the impulse of the heart than the judgment of the reason. And because they presumed beyond what was well-pleasing unto God, therefore they quickly lost grace. They became poor and were left vile, who had built for themselves
- a Franciscan, he succeeded Alexander of Hales as the Franciscan theologian at the University of Paris - when he died he was the general of the Franciscan order - ‘all rational thought comes from faith, all truth is revealed truth’
Sunday, July 15, 2012
“You think that others, too, are gods, whom we know to be devils. However, it is a fundamental human right, a privilege of nature, then every man should worship according to his own convictions: one man's religion neither harms nor helps another man. It is assuredly no part of religion to compel religion – to which free will and not force should lead us – the sacrificial victims even being required of a willing mind. You will render no real service to your gods by compelling us to sacrifice.” Tertullian, To Scapula, 2, ANF 3:105
Saturday, July 14, 2012
“Nevertheless, you can see that adoration of the sacrament is a dangerous procedure if the Word and faith are not inculcated; so much so that I really think it would be better to follow the example of the apostles and not worship, then to follow our custom and worship. Not that adoration is wrong, but simply because there is less danger in not adoring then in adoring; because human nature tends so easily to emphasize its own works and to neglect God's work, and the sacrament will not admit of that.” Martin Luther, The Adoration of the Sacrament, LW, AE, 36:297
Friday, July 13, 2012
Fili, utilius est tibi et securius devotionis gratiam abscondere nec in altum te efferre, nec multum inde loqui, neque multum ponderare, sed magi teipsum despicere, et tanquam indigno datam timere. Non est huic affectioni tenacius inhærendum, quæ citius potest mutari in contrarium. Cogita quam miser in gratia, et inops esse soles sine gratia. Nec est in eo tantum spiritualis vitæ profectus, cum consolationis habueris gratiam, sed cum humiliter, et abnegate patienterque tuleris ejus subtractionem. Ita quod tunc ab orationis studio non torpeas, nec reliqua opera tua ex usu facienda omnino dilabi permittas, sed sicut potueris melius et intellexeris, libenter quod est in te facias, nec propter ariditatem sive anxietatem mentis quam sentis te totaliter negligas.
My son, it is better and safer for you to hide the grace of devotion, and not to lift yourself up on high, nor to speak much thereof, nor to value it greatly; but rather to despise yourself, and to fear as though this grace were given to one unworthy thereof. Nor must you depend too much upon this feeling, for it can very quickly be turned into its opposite. Think when you are in a state of grace how miserable and poor you are without grace. Nor is there advance in spiritual life in this alone, that you have the grace of consolation, but that you
Thursday, July 12, 2012
“For our religion commands us to love even our enemies, and to pray for those who persecute us, aiming at a perfection all its own, and seeking in its disciples something of a higher type than the commonplace goodness of the world. For all of those who love them; it is peculiar to Christians alone to love those who hate them.” Tertullian, To Scapula, 1, ANF 3:105
The “Carmelites” and the “Friar Hermits of St. Augustine” also began around this time
Two “orders” of lay people were also popular at this time - the Begines (for women) and the Beghards (for men) lived together in a semi-monastic life, but took no vows and lived and worked in the cities - in fact all of these orders worked in the new urban areas that were springing up all over Europe
Wednesday, July 11, 2012
“Now, therefore, let me describe in order four groups of people. The first are those whose entire interest is in the words of this sacrament, so that they feed their faith; they receive the bread and wine with the body and blood of Christ as a sure sign of that word and faith. These are the most secure and the best. They probably seldom descend so low as to bother themselves about worshiping and adoring, for they pay attention to the work God does to them and forget about the works they do for the sacrament.
The second group are those who exercise the right sort of faith, and then descended to their own works and worship Christ spiritually in the sacrament. That is, they bow inwardly with their hearts and confess him as their Lord, who does all things within them; and they prove their inward worship by outwardly bowing, bending, and kneeling with the body.” Martin Luther, The Adoration of the Sacrament, LW, AE, 36:296
The Franciscans - begun by St. Francis, 1182-1226 - son of a well-to-do merchant, Francis became interested in religion, spent quite a bit of his father’s money to rebuild a church - the father
disowned Francis, but Francis decided to dedicate his life to imitating Jesus - by that he meant that he would have “absolute poverty” (own nothing), that he would be of service to other people and that he would be obedient to the priests - around 1216 his order of the Friars Minor or Franciscans was accepted by Rome and became very popular
Tuesday, July 10, 2012
Certa tanquam miles bonus; et si interdum ex fragilitate corruis, resume vires fortiores prioribus, confidens de ampliori gratia mea, et multum præcave a vana complacentia et superbia. Propter hoc multi in errorem ducuntur, et in cecitatem pæne incurabilem quandoque labuntur. Sit tibi in cautelam et perpetuam humilitatem ruina hæc superborum et de se stulte præsumentium.
Strive like a good soldier; and if sometimes you fail through weakness, put on your strength more bravely than before, trusting in My more abundant grace, and beware of vain confidence and pride. Because of it many are led into error, and sometimes fall into blindness well-nigh irremediable. Let this ruin of the proud, who foolishly lift themselves up, be to you a warning and a continual exhortation to humility.
Imitation of Christ, III, 6:5
The Dominicans - begun by Dominic (Domingo de Guzman), 1170-1221, who had the idea of sending preachers wandering around to combat the heresies that had sprung up (Waldensian/Albigensian) - accepted by Rome in 1216 - since they emphasized preaching and teaching to heretics, there was also an emphasis on learning, that you had to know what the heretics said, and be able to contradict them - therefore the Dominican order began to have a big emphasis on education and learning and soon many Dominicans became faculty members at the new universities springing up all over Europe
Monday, July 9, 2012
The 4th Crusade, 1202-1204
- mainly by Germans and some French since John of England and Philip of France ignored the whole thing - they made their way to Venice, who agreed to transport them to Egypt for a price
- when they couldn’t meet the payment, Venice got them to agree to attack Constantinople - the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders in April, 1204 meant the virtual end of the Byzantine
empire - the Greeks struggled to renew the empire for the next 240 years before the Turks totally took over
The Children’s Crusade, 1212
- a French shepherd boy (age 12) supposedly had been commanded by Christ to lead children against the Turks and they would succeed where the adults had failed - the 20,000 kids who followed him were given “free” transportation to the east, and at the end of the journey they were sold as slaves
The 5th Crusade, 1218-1221
- mostly Austrians, Hungarians and Scandinavian knights went on this crusade, which was a total failure
The 6th Crusade, 1228-1229
- led by Frederick II of Germany (who had been excommunicated after a slow start), this was one of the most successful crusades, with little fighting, but negotiations provided all that the
The 7th Crusade, 1248-1254
- led by Louis IX of France sailed for Egypt on 1800 ships with 60,000 men - he waited too long to attack, was eventually defeated and captured
The 8th Crusade, 1270
- led once again by Louis IX, the crusade landed at Tunis in North Africa in order to move overland to Egypt - Louis died in a plague which swept his army, and his brother Charles brought everyone back to Europe
Sunday, July 8, 2012
“For that reason we say now that one should not condemn people or accuse them of heresy if they do not adore the sacrament, for there is no command to that effect, and it is not for that purpose that Christ is present.” Martin Luther, The Adoration of the Sacrament, LW, AE, 36:295
1237-1241, Mongols overran southern and central Russia, invaded Hungary and Poland (destroying their armies), capturing and destroying Bagdad and much of the middle east
- Europe was terrified at their invasions which seemed to be unstoppable
Kublai Khan, 1264-1294, the Mongols ruled all over Asia, from China to Poland - during the years 1275-1292, an Italian, Marco Polo, worked for Kublai Khan and brought back word to Europe
of what the Far East was like - in 1282, the Mongols tried to invade Japan, only to have their fleet destroyed by a “divine wind”, a ‘kamikaze’ (an unexpected typhoon)
Saturday, July 7, 2012
Certare autem adversus incidentes malos motus animi, suggestionemque spernere diaboli, insigne est virtutis et magni meriti. Non ergo te conturbent alienæ phantasiæ de quacumque materia ingestæ. Forte serva propositum, et intentionem rectam ad Deum. Non est illusio, quod aliquando in excessum subito raperis et statim ad ineptias solitas cordis reverteris. Illas enim magis invite pateris quam agis, et quamdiu displicent, et reniteris, meritum est et non perditio.
Therefore let not strange fancies disturb you, whenever they arise. Bravely observe your purpose and your upright intentions towards God. It is not an illusion when you are sometimes suddenly carried away into rapture, and then suddenly art brought back to the usual vanities of your heart. For you rather unwillingly undergo them than cause them; and so long as they displease you and you strive against them, it is a merit and no loss.
Imitation of Christ, III, 6:3